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Table of contents

Overall and for each process step, identify, evaluate and, where appropriate, select operating efficiency opportunitiesin the areas of, for example:. This page has been archived on the Web Information identified as archived is provided for reference, research or recordkeeping purposes.

This page has been archived on the Web. Table of Contents. I - Introduction to P2 and P2 Planning 2. III - Glossary 6.

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VI — Appendix G: Operating Efficiencies and Training Introduction Operating Efficiencies Training and Involving Employees References and Resources Introduction Enhancing operating efficiencies and ensuring a well-trained staff are important contributors to competitiveness and profitability.

Operating Efficiencies Cost-effective opportunities to implement pollution prevention through improved operating efficiencies generally exist in both small and large industries. Source: Freeman, Examples of each of these techniques are discussed below. Basic Operations Numerous improvements can often be made to basic operations to optimize raw material use, reduce waste and prevent pollution.

In general: Train employees about safe handling of materials and wastes. Write equipment procedures in plain language and post for quick reference. Close containers with tight-fitting lids and bungs to avoid evaporation and contamination. Use spigots and nozzles for bulk containers to prevent drips and spills.

Air Pollution Control Act

Have employees return empty containers before getting new ones. Use input materials for their intended use only. Use funnels for transferring wastes to storage containers. Reuse used absorbents to soak up puddles. Squeegee excess cleaning solutions from parts, drip pans, or floor before cleaning or applying an absorbent material. Moisten rags with a squeeze bottle instead of soaking rags in solvent. Collect recyclable or reusable liquids from shop rags.

Collect shop rags and clean through a laundry service for reuse. Return empty containers to suppliers and accept empty containers from customers. Consider whether changes in the size and shape of containers will reduce waste generation or enhance waste collection efficiencies.

For equipment operation and production scheduling: Maximize batch size to reduce clean-out waste. Dedicate equipment to a single product. Check for empty containers, spill residues, leaking tanks, reactors, pipes, valves and hoses. Properly maintain and operate process equipment to prevent the production of off-specification products, excess or spent process materials and solution, unused additives, and catalysts.

Check pipes for leaks at seams, pump seals, and flange gaskets. Install overflow alarms, rupture disks and relief valves. Use all welded piping construction, flange guards, double seals and bellows-sealed valves.

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Test containers periodically. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review. Add to Wishlist. Ships in 7 to 10 business days. Link Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed. Description Table of Contents Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book!

Industry Reviews All Rights Reserved. In Stock. Biosolids Treatment Processes Volume 6. Energy Recovery Processes from Wastes. It Can't Be True! Packed with pong-tastic poo facts. The more comprehensive it is in scope, the more likely it is that the planning process will focus on the root causes of the problem, identify the most cost effective pollution prevention opportunities and avoid inappropriate trade-offs such as substituting one toxic substance for another.

Plans can and should be tailored to the needs of the organization, forming an integral part of its existing business plan.

Handbook of air pollution prevention and control

The P2 planning process itself also has its own results and benefits. For example:. There are six key steps to developing and implementing a pollution prevention plan:. Step 1 — Commitment and Policy : Establish a commitment to pollution prevention and an overall pollution prevention policy.

Step 2 — Baseline Review : Conduct a baseline review. Take a close look and document current levels and sources of inputs raw materials, energy and water , products and non-product outputs. Note any information gaps associated with a facility, specific product s or production line s. Step 3 — Planning : Develop the plan: set objectives and targets in your plan and identify, evaluate and select pollution prevention options to meet your selected objectives and targets.

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Step 6 — Review, Evaluate and Improv e: Evaluate, review and improve the plan. There is a wide range of pollution prevention practices. Six of the most common and effective practices are described below along with co-operative P2 action. More detail on each of these practices can be found in the corresponding appendices. Product design and reformulation involves looking at the whole life cycle i.

The product design stage is a crucial starting point for implementing pollution prevention. Addressing environmental concerns from the earliest stage is a cost-effective way to minimize pollution and waste throughout the product life cycle. In trying to reduce the environmental impacts of producing and consuming products and to improve efficiencies over the entire life cycle, DfE may reduce the toxicity of a product, reduce the amount of waste material, extend the life of a product, extend the life of the materials used, improve the selection of materials, and reduce the energy and material intensity required to produce, use and dispose of the product.

Sani-Terre, a manufacturer of equipment-cleaning units, undertook the challenge of designing a prototype to considerably reduce both the greenhouse gases produced and the significant costs incurred for operating and maintaining a mobile unit. The redesign eliminated the gas generator and replaced the three other gas motors with hydraulic motors powered by the diesel motor of the mobile unit's truck.

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Also, the hydraulic motors used for washing and water treatment were replaced with electric motors. For more information and guidance, please see Appendix D. Equipment modifications and process changes means changing or modifying equipment or processes within your facility to improve efficiency, reduce or eliminate pollution and reduce material, water or energy waste. The change may involve introducing new technologies or approaches to existing operating systems, processes and practices.

This may include, for example, replacing solvents for paint or varnish removal with mechanical stripping; using ion-based painting systems; or integrating recirculation or countercurrent cleaning within a process. Cycles Devinci, an aluminum bicycle manufacturer, modified its paint application process to reduce the amount of paint lost during the paint application process.

The new electrostatic application system involved modifying the paint nozzles, the paint chamber, and purchasing a natural gas oven for drying the parts. The modification has reduced V OC emissions and costs and has resulted in significant air quality improvements. For more information, examples and guidance, please see Appendix E. Materials and feedstock substitution involves replacing polluting materials, used in the production process or embedded within a product, with non-polluting or less polluting materials and feedstock.